Let’s say you work in the development office at a university, and you’re delivering a presentation to potential donors. The audience transformation might look like this:

You want to move the audience from: Skepticism that the school will make good use of the money, and you want to move them to: Excitement about innovative research by faculty, students, and alumni—and an impulse to give.

Change typically doesn’t happen without a struggle. It’s hard to convince people to move away from a view that is comfortable or widely held as true, or change a behavioral pattern that has become their norm.

You are persuading members of your audience to let go of old beliefs or habits and adopt new ones. Once you understand their transformation, you can demonstrate empathy for the sacrifices they may need to make to move your idea forward.

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